Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)
Peripheral arterial disease is caused by atherosclerosis which is the buildup of cholesterol and plaque in the lining of arteries. This process has a genetic basis. It is made worse by factors such as:
•Poorly controlled cholesterol and hypertension
In peripheral artery disease (PAD), the plaque buildup causes blood flow restriction to legs and other affected organs. With the progression of PAD induced flow restriction, blood flow cannot keep up with limb’s resting demands for oxygen and nutrients. This causes leg cramps and may lead to non-healing wounds. Arterial blockages are the leading cause of limb amputations due to non-healing leg ulcers/wounds that lead to infection and gangrene.
If you have PAD, you are also at higher risk for having heart disease and stroke.
Common Symptoms of PAD:
•Calf, leg or buttock pain (claudication) while walking.
•The pain stops at rest and resumes at a predictable distance.
•Leg weakness, burning or aching feet in feet or toes worse with walking.
•Sores or ulcers on toes, feet or legs that do not heal after four weeks of local wound treatment.
•Change in color or feet, loss of hair and wasting of muscles in the legs.
Treatment of PAD
•Lifestyle modification- smoking cessation, diet, exercise, weight loss
•Medical therapy (medications)
•Endovascular treatment- Involves use of tiny catheters and instruments inserted into arteries through tiny puncture in the groin or leg to treat blocked artery and restore blood flow. This minimally invasive treatment does not require hospitalization or general anesthesia and is performed at an outpatient facility.
▪Atherectomy (orbital, laser, directional, rotational)
What is Angiogram?
Angiogram is an X-ray examination that is used to evaluate arteries throughout the body. A thin tube (a catheter) is inserted into one of the arteries through a very small puncture in the skin, about the size of a pencil tip. Contrast (X-ray dye) is then injected into the artery while X-rays are taken of the area. The contrast makes the artery visible on the X-rays. One of the most common reasons for an angiogram is to find out if a blocked artery is causing symptoms. An angiogram can determine exactly where the blood vessel is obstructed, how severe the blockage is, and what is causing it. Angiogram may be needed to supplement other medical tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance (MR).
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